Jenness, D. 1959.The People of the Twilight. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Joe, J. R., and R. S. Young, eds. 1994.Diabetes as a Disease of Civilization: The Impact of Culture Change on Indigenous Peoples. New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Burkitt and Trowell called their fiber hypothesis a“major modification” of Cleave’s ideas, but they never actually addressed the reasons why Cleave had identified refined carbohydrates as the problem to begin with: How to explain the absence of these chronic diseases in cultures whose traditional diets contained predominantly fat and protein and little or no plant foods and thus little or no fiber—the Masai and the Samburu, the Native Americans of the Great Plains, the Inuit? And why did chronic diseases begin appearing in these populations only with the availability of Western diets, if they weren’t eating copious fiber prior to this nutrition transition? Trowell did suggest, as Keys had, that the experience of these populations might be irrelevant to the rest of the world. “Special ethnic groups like the Eskimos,” he wrote, “adapted many millennia ago to special diets, which in other groups, not adapted to these diets,might induce disease.” Trowell spent three decades in Kenya and Uganda administering to the Masai and other nomadic tribes, Burkitt had spent two decades there, and yet that was the extent of the discussion. In 1908, the Smithsonian Institution’s Bureau of American Ethnology published the first significant report on the health status of Native Americans. The author was the physician-turned-anthropologist Ale? Hrdlika, who served for three decades as curator of the Division of Physical Anthropology at the National Museum in Washington (now the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History). In a 460-page report entitledPhysiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico, Hrdlika described his observations from six expeditions he had undertaken.“Malignant diseases,” he said, “if they exist at all—that they do would be difficult to doubt—must be extremely rare.” He had not encountered “unequivocal signs of a malignant growth on an Indian bone.” Hrdlika also noted that he saw only three cases of“organic heart trouble” among more than two thousand Native Americans he examined, and “not one pronounced instance of advanced arterial sclerosis.” Varicose veins were rare, and hemorrhoids infrequent. “No case of appendicitis, peritonitis, ulcer of the stomach, or of any grave disease of the liver was observed,” he wrote. Buy Amantadine now and save 20%
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